Mortgage lenders, debt collectors and credit card companies have borne the brunt of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau's public enforcement actions over the past four years, yet banks have paid the most in penalties and restitution, according to a new study released by an agency insider.

Banks were the subject of 25% of the agency's 122 enforcement actions between 2012 and 2015, but paid more than 63% of the civil money penalties and 65% of the $11 billion in consumer relief collected by the agency during that time.

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